Phone provisioning

Creating Custom Templates

Custom templates comes in handy when you have some really specific configuration to make on your telephony devices.

Templates are handled on a per plugin basis. It's not possible for a template to be shared by more than one plugin since it's a design limitation of the plugin system of provd.

Note: When you install a new plugin, templates are not migrated automatically, so you must manually copy them from the old plugin directory to the new one. This does not apply for a plugin upgrade.

Let's suppose we have installed the xivo-aastra-3.3.1-SP2 plugin and want to write some custom templates for it.

First thing to do is to go into the directory where the plugin is installed:

cd /var/lib/wazo-provd/plugins/xivo-aastra-3.3.1-SP2

Once you are there, you can see there's quite a few files and directories:

   tree
   .
   +-- common.py
   +-- entry.py
   +-- pkgs
   |   +-- pkgs.db
   +-- plugin-info
   +-- README
   +-- templates
   |   +-- 6730i.tpl
   |   +-- 6731i.tpl
   |   +-- 6739i.tpl
   |   +-- 6753i.tpl
   |   +-- 6755i.tpl
   |   +-- 6757i.tpl
   |   +-- 9143i.tpl
   |   +-- 9480i.tpl
   |   +-- base.tpl
   +-- var
       +-- cache
       +-- installed
       +-- templates
       +-- tftpboot
           +-- Aastra
               +-- aastra.cfg

The interesting directories are:

  • templates:

    This is where the original templates lies. You *should not** edit these files directly but instead copy the one you want to modify in the var/templates directory.

  • var/templates:

    This is the directory where you put and edit your custom templates.

  • var/tftpboot:

    This is where the configuration files lies once they have been generated from the templates. You should look at them to confirm that your custom templates are giving you the result you are expecting.

Warning: When you uninstall a plugin, the plugin directory is removed altogether, including all the custom templates.

A few things to know before writing your first custom template:

  • templates use the Jinja2 template engine.
  • when doing an include or an extend from a template, the file is first looked up in the var/templates directory and then in the templates directory.
  • device in autoprov mode are affected by templates, because from the point of view of provd, there's no difference between a device in autoprov mode or fully configured. This means there's usually no need to modify static files in var/tftpboot. And this is a bad idea since a plugin upgrade will override these files.

Custom template for every devices

cp templates/base.tpl var/templates
vi var/templates/base.tpl
wazo-provd-cli -c 'devices.using_plugin("xivo-aastra-3.3.1-SP2").reconfigure()'

Once this is done, if you want to synchronize all the affected devices, use the following command:

wazo-provd-cli -c 'devices.using_plugin("xivo-aastra-3.3.1-SP2").synchronize()'

Custom template for a specific model

Let's supose we want to customize the template for our 6739i

cp templates/6739i.tpl var/templates
vi var/templates/6739i.tpl
wazo-provd-cli -c 'devices.using_plugin("xivo-aastra-3.3.1-SP2").reconfigure()'

Custom template for a specific device

To create a custom template for a specific device you have to create a device-specific template named <device_specific_file_with_extension>.tpl in the var/templates/ directory :

  • for an Aastra phone, if you want to customize the file 00085D2EECFB.cfg you will have to create a template file named 00085D2EECFB.cfg.tpl,
  • for a Snom phone, if you want to customize the file 000413470411.xml you will have to create a template file named 000413470411.xml.tpl,
  • for a Polycom phone, if you want to customize the file 0004f2211c8b-user.cfg you will have to create a template file named 0004f2211c8b-user.cfg.tpl,
  • and so on.

Here, we want to customize the content of a device-specific file named 00085D2EECFB.cfg, we need to create a template named 00085D2EECFB.cfg.tpl

cp templates/6739i.tpl var/templates/00085D2EECFB.cfg.tpl
vi var/templates/00085D2EECFB.cfg.tpl
wazo-provd-cli -c 'devices.using_mac("00085D2EECFB").reconfigure()'

Note: The choice to use this syntax comes from the fact that provd supports devices that do not have MAC addresses, namely softphones.

Also, some devices have more than one file (like Snom), so this way make it possible to customize more than 1 file.

The template to use as the base for a device specific template will vary depending on the need. Typically, the model template will be a good choice, but it might not always be the case.

Changing the Plugin Used by a Device

From time to time, new firmwares are released by the devices manufacturer. This sometimes translate to a new plugin being available for these devices.

When this happens, it almost always means the new plugin obsoletes the older one. The older plugin is then considered "end-of-life", and won't receive any new updates nor be available for new installation.

Let's suppose we have the old xivo-aastra-3.2.2.1136 plugin installed on our Wazo and want to use the newer xivo-aastra-3.3.1-SP2 plugin.

Both these plugins can be installed at the same time, and you can manually change the plugin used by a phone with PUT /devices/{device_id}.

If you are using custom templates in your old plugin, you should copy them to the new plugin and make sure that they are still compatible.

Once you take the decision to migrate all your phones to the new plugin, you can use the following command:

wazo-provd-cli -c 'helpers.mass_update_devices_plugin("xivo-aastra-3.2.2.1136", "xivo-aastra-3.3.1-SP2")'

Or, if you also want to synchronize (i.e. reboot) them at the same time:

wazo-provd-cli -c 'helpers.mass_update_devices_plugin("xivo-aastra-3.2.2.1136", "xivo-aastra-3.3.1-SP2", synchronize=True)'

You can check that all went well by looking at GET /devices output.

Advanced Configuration

DHCP Integration

DHCP integration is enabled by default without possibility to disable it.

What DHCP integration does is that, on every DHCP request made by one of your phones, the DHCP server sends information about the request to provd, which can then use this information to update its device database.

This feature is useful for phones which lack information in their TFTP/HTTP requests. For example, without DHCP integration, it's impossible to extract model information for phones from the Cisco 7900 series. Without the model information extracted, there's chance your device won't be automatically associated to the best plugin.

This feature can also be useful if your phones are not always getting the same IP addresses, for one reason or another. Again, this is useful only for some phones, like the Cisco 7900; it has no effect for Aastra 6700.

NAT

The provisioning server has partial support for environment where the telephony devices are behind a NAT equipment.

By default, each time the provisioning server receives an HTTP/TFTP request from a device, it makes sure that only one device has the source IP address of the request. This is not a desirable behaviour when the provisioning server is used in a NAT environment, since in this case, it's normal that more than 1 devices have the same source IP address (from the point of view of the server).

If all your devices used on your Wazo are behind a NAT, you should disable this behaviour by setting the nat option to yes with PUT /asterisk/sip/general.

Enabling the NAT option will also improve the performance of the provisioning server in this scenario.

If you have many devices behind a NAT equipment, you should also check the security section to make sure the IP address of your NAT equipment doesn't get banned unintentionally.

Limitations

  • You must only have phones of the following brands:

    • Aastra
    • Cisco SPA
    • Yealink
  • All your devices must be behind a NAT equipment (the devices may be grouped behind different NAT equipments, not necessarily the same one)

  • You must provision the devices via REST API PUT /lines/{line_id}/devices/{device_id}. Using the 6-digit provisioning code on the phone will produce unexpected results (i.e. the wrong device will be provisioned)

For technical information about why other devices are not supported, you can look at this issue on the Wazo bug tracker.

Security

By design, the auto-provisioning process is vulnerable to:

  • Leakage of sensitive information: some files that are served by the provisioning server contains sensitive information, e.g. SIP credentials that are used by SIP phones to make calls. Depending on your network configuration and the amount of information an attacker has on your telephony ecosystem (phone vendor, MAC address, etc.), he could retrieve the content of some files containing sensitive information.
  • Denial-of-service attack: in its default configuration, each time the provisioning server identify a request coming from a new device, it creates a new device object in its database. An attacker could spoof requests to the provisioning server to create a huge amount of devices, creating a denial-of-service condition.

That said, starting from XiVO 16.08, XiVO adds Fail2ban support to the provisioning server to drastically lower the likelihood of such attacks. Every time a request for a file potentially containing sensitive information is requested, a log line is appended to the /var/log/wazo-provd-fail2ban.log file, which is monitored by fail2ban. The same thing happens when a new device is automatically created by the provisioning server.

The fail2ban configuration for the provisioning server is located at /etc/fail2ban/jail.d/wazo.conf. You may want to adjust the findtime / maxretry value if you have special requirements. In particular, if you have many phones behind a NAT equipment, you'll probably have to adjust these values, since every request coming from your phones behind your NAT will appear to the provisioning server as coming from the same source IP address, and this IP address will then be more likely to get banned promptly if you, for example, reboot all your phones at the same time. Another solution would be to add your IP address to the list of ignored IP address of fail2ban. See the fail2ban(1) man page for more information.

System Requirements

Wazo 16.08 or later is required. You also need to use compatible wazo-provd plugins. Here's the list of official plugins which are compatible:

+------------------|---------+
| Plugin family    | Version |
+==================+=========+
| xivo-aastra      | >= 1.6  |
+------------------|---------+
| xivo-cisco-sccp  | >= 1.1  |
+------------------|---------+
| xivo-cisco-spa   | >= 1.0  |
+------------------|---------+
| xivo-digium      | >= 1.0  |
+------------------|---------+
| xivo-polycom     | >= 1.7  |
+------------------|---------+
| xivo-snom        | >= 1.6  |
+------------------|---------+
| xivo-yealink     | >= 1.26 |
+------------------|---------+